The ocean is changing. Up to 90% of coral reefs would be eradicated and the oceans would become more acidic. Fishing around the world would be much less productive. The level of the NDC set by each country will determine the objectives of that country. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because of the lack of specificity, normative nature or language necessary to establish binding standards.  In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NDC on a specified date and not for an application if a defined target is not achieved in an NDC.   There will be only a “Name and Shame” system  or as UN Deputy Secretary General for Climate Change, J. Pésztor, CBS News (US), a “Name and Encouragement” plan.  Since the agreement has no consequences if countries do not live up to their commitments, such a consensus is fragile. A cattle of nations withdrawing from the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of other governments and lead to the total collapse of the agreement.  An important indicator of progress in stabilizing emissions is the level of increase in emissions from each country from year to year – their incremental emissions. It is clear that the greatest impact on climate stabilization will be that the largest incremental emitters stabilize their emissions. But the more we go into the decade of the 1990s without stabilization, the more difficult it will be to achieve the internationally recognized voluntary goal (The World Bank, 1995).
The World Bank calculated incremental emissions for 1986-91 by adapting a linear trend to CDIAC emissions data. Where the trend was insignificant, the increment was zeroed. This process has been repeated for both individual national data and total global emissions. Scientists have been warning for years of the disastrous consequences for the environment if global temperatures continue to rise at the current rate. The average temperature of the earth has already risen by about 1oC above pre-industrial levels. In a 2018 special report, the IPCC predicted that without a drastic reduction in carbon emissions, the world will reach 1.5 degrees Celsius of warming between 2030 and 2052. Yes, there is broad consensus within the scientific community, although some deny that climate change is a problem, including politicians in the United States. When negotiating teams meet for international climate talks, “there is less skepticism about science and more disagreement about how to set priorities,” said David Victor, professor of international relations at the University of California, San Diego. The basic science is that: Kyoto Protocol, 2005. The Kyoto Protocol [PDF], adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first legally binding climate treaty. It called on industrialized countries to reduce emissions by an average of 5% from 1990 levels and set up a system to monitor countries` progress.